ICM518

The Metamorphosis of the Monarch

INTRODUCTION

Humans have always been fascinated by the magical metamorphosis of the monarch butterfly, from awkward chubby caterpillar to beautiful, brightly colored butterfly. However, over the past several years the monarch population has been severely declining, due to habitat loss, increased use of pesticides, and overall changes in climate. This decline of the monarch population has captured public attention – which has led to an increased desire to raise monarchs.

More and more individuals are raising monarchs in captivity – purchasing eggs, moving caterpillars into basement enclosures, and shielding the youngest butterflies from the elements. Is this human intervention really helping the monarch population – or is it doing more harm than good? Without proper knowledge and experience, monarchs raised in captivity tend to be underdeveloped, with shorter wings, less strength, and diminished fat reserves required to make their essential migratory travel to Mexico for the winter. Monarchs raised in less than ideal indoor conditions may end up with parasites and diseases that can be brought back to the larger population during migration.

Monarchs do need our help – but the best way to help grow this population in a natural and healthy way is to create a welcoming environment in your yard to foster their growth and development. With a carefully maintained and pesticide free garden, cultivated with appropriate plants such as milkweed and nectar producing flowers, you can invite a healthy monarch colony that will thrive in late summer. Creating ideal conditions in your garden and then allowing nature to take is course is the best solution to restoring the monarch population back to healthy numbers.

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July 24. Adult monarchs seek out milkweed to lay their eggs, knowing it is the only food source for the caterpillars. Once the eggs hatch, they grow through five different stages into 3” long caterpillars.

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August 30. Caterpillars overrun the milkweed, eating the leaves all the way to the ground. The milkweed provides the nourishment needed to perform their transformation into butterflies.

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September 3. Once they reach maturity, the caterpillars find a place to hang upside-down in a j-hook position. This position signals the beginning of their metamorphosis.

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September 5. The caterpillar is completely self-sustaining, forming the chrysalis from its own body. Starting from the head and over the course of several hours, the chrysalis begins to take shape. During this stage, the chrysalis is particularly vulnerable to parasites, due to its very thin shell. The shell hardens over time.

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September 6. Inside the chrysalis, the caterpillar completely liquefies. This ‘caterpillar soup’ then reorganizes its cells into the body parts which will ultimately become a monarch butterfly.

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September 15. At the very end of this stage, the chrysalis becomes completely transparent. The entire form of the caterpillar is visible, including the colorful, tightly wrapped wings.

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September 16. Approximately 24-48 hours after turning translucent, the monarch butterfly emerges from its chrysalis. First, a crack appears in the very top of the chrysalis. Next, the head of the butterfly breaks through the very bottom, slowly releasing its body from the shell.

September 16. In this video, watch as the monarch emerges from the chrysalis after forming for approximately two weeks.

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September 16. The butterfly as it emerges appears very small, with short and crumbled wings. This is a critical phase for the butterfly – failure to properly emerge and unfurl its body can result in misshapen wings that make it impossible to fly.

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September 16. The newly emerged butterfly has an enormous body filled with fluid. It pumps this fluid into its wings to make them longer, and the body itself shrinks down to its normal size. The butterfly must hang from the chrysalis during this stage – one wrong move and the wings will fail to properly form.

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September 17. The butterfly hangs from its chrysalis for 1-2 days, drying its wings and becoming familiar with its new form. The butterfly will often open and close its wings in order to fully dry them.

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September 26. Flowers with nectar provide a food source for butterflies, who drink through a straw that unfurls from their body, called a proboscis. This nectar and sunlight will provide them with the energy they need to make the long journey to Mexico for the winter.

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September 28. Monarchs require ideal conditions to feed, grow, and transform into beautiful and strong butterflies capable of traveling the long distance required for their migration. Unfortunately, even in the best conditions, not all butterflies survive. Many believe the survival rate of monarchs, from egg to full butterfly, is only around 10%.

CONCLUSION

Monarch butterflies are amazing creatures, performing an impressive metamorphosis unmatched in the animal kingdom. However their magic is at risk from many of the adverse effects of modern living. Humans have contributed to the decline of the monarch population – but they can also help to improve it. Creating a chemical-free garden, full of milkweed and plenty of nectar flowers, will invite monarchs into your yard and help them grow into strong and beautiful butterflies.


RESOURCES

Brackney, S. (2016). Are we loving monarchs to death? Discover Magazine.

Jabr, F. (2012). How does a caterpillar turn into a butterfly. Scientific American.

Monarch Lab. (2018). Monarch lifecycle. University of Minnesota.

 

3 comments on “The Metamorphosis of the Monarch

  1. shelleycrick

    Kristen, this is amazing! Not only is it an incredible story about the metamorphosis of the monarch butterfly, but it’s a brilliant example of a photo story. You’re following one character through its transformation process, and it’s beautiful to watch. I love all of the close-up images, and the feature photo pulled back where we can see more of your garden.
    Although the captions were both intriguing and informative, you’ve photographed the perfect stages of transformation, so we don’t need the captions to understand what’s happening. How lucky for us that you’ve been watching this process and were able to share! I absolutely love it.

    My favorite photo is from September 17th, where the butterfly is hanging and letting the fluid move into and drying its wings. I love how the butterfly is in focus, and the flowers and leaves that provided the nutrients to complete this cycle are in the background.

    I read your project analysis as well and appreciate the idea of “visual vignettes” telling mini-stories. That you were able to sit every day and witness this process is excellent. It definitely adds some gravity to the perils of the monarch’s makeover.

    Thank you so much for sharing your story!

    Like

  2. Hi Kristen,

    This was awesome! I thought this was the perfect example of a photo essay – a nice variety of shots, captions, and comments to go with it – and a great way to tell the story of something we have grown up learning about: metamorphosis. This was a beautiful way to demonstrate the growth process of a Monarch butterfly, along with raising awareness about the lessening numbers of these delicate creatures. Your detailed essay, and photos, allowed me to follow along a Monarch butterfly’s life in a way I never have before. The fact that you were able to capture all of these moments, especially the emerging from a cocoon, is amazing.

    I thought the captions were well done, although definitely could have been shorter due to the fact that we can understand the photo without the caption. I liked the idea of having the dates there though, to show how much time is needed for this process.

    I love the photo from August 30, you weren’t kidding when you said you found a ton the next day instead of just one! Nature is fascinating, and humans tend to forget that sometimes. I thought you captured this really well, reminding us to pause and look at our plants for a little while to see just who else is admiring them.

    Thank you for this magical read.

    Like

  3. sangeetaberi01

    This is amazing! Entirely overwhelming write up and knowledgeable too❤

    Like

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